The Solar System in April
NZDT ends on the morning of Sunday 5 April, clocks being set back an hour at 3am.
Dates and times are NZDT (UT +13 hours) up to April 4 and NZST (UT + 12 hours) from April 5 unless otherwise specified. Rise and set times are for Wellington. They will vary by a few minutes elsewhere in NZ.
Sunrise, sunset and twilight times in april
April 1 NZDT April 30 NZST morning evening morning evening rise: 7.33am, set: 7.15pm rise: 7.03am, set: 5.31pm Twilights Civil: starts: 7.08am, ends: 7.41pm starts: 6.38am, ends: 5.58pm Nautical: starts: 6.36am, ends: 8.13pm starts: 6.05am, ends: 6.31pm Astro: starts: 6.04am, ends: 8.45pm starts: 5.33am, ends: 7.03pm
April PHASES OF THE MOON (times as shown by GUIDE)
Full moon: April 5 at 1.06 am (Apr 4, 12:06 UT) Last quarter: April 12 at 3.44 pm ( 03:44 UT) New moon: April 19 at 6.57 am (Apr 18, 18:57 UT) First quarter: April 26 at 11.55 am (Apr 25, 23:55 UT)
Total eclipse of moon.
The moon will be totally eclipsed on the night of April 4 to 5. The entire event is visible from New Zealand and from eastern and central Australia. From Perth in Western Australia the moon rises about 15 minutes before the start of the initial umbral phase. The total phase of the eclipse is very short, lasting 7 minutes 21 seconds from 12:56:55 am to 1:04:16 am NZDT (11:56:55 to 12:04:16 UT). The northern limb of the moon is only just inside the umbra at totality, so is likely to remain quite brightly lit.
The moon enters the umbra at 11:15:30 pm and leaves it again at 2:46:16 NZDT. The penumbral phases, during which little change in the moon will be noticed, starts at 10:01:07 pm and ends 3:59:29 am NZDT. Note that strictly NZDT reverts to NZST at 3:00 am, before the end of the eclipse.
Mercury, Mars and Uranus are all too close to the Sun to observe. Venus gets a little higher in the evening sky, Jupiter is prominent in the first part of the evening but gets low by late evening setting just before midnight by the 30th. Saturn is best viewed late evening and through the morning before sunrise.
Mercury is at superior conjunction with the Sun on April 10 at about 3 pm. Following conjunction Mercury will become an evening object. By the end of April it will set some 45 minutes after the Sun, so is not likely to be visible.
At conjunction Mercury will be 200 million km from the Earth, 50 million km beyond the Sun. At its closest it would appear to be just over half a degrees from the southern limb of the Sun, an angle about equal to the Sun's apparent diameter.
Venus gets a little higher in the western sky following sunset during April. On the 1st it sets some 90 minutes after the Sun, increasing to just over 2 hours later on the 30th. Even so Venus will be fairly low to the northwest soon after sunset.
The planet starts the month in Aries, moving into Taurus on the 7th. On the 11th and 12th it will be about 2.5° above the Pleiades. By the end of April Venus will be 3° from the star beta Tau, magnitude 1.7
The crescent moon will be a few degrees from Venus on the evenings of the 21st and 22nd of April. The moon will be to the left of the planet on first evening and above it the following evening.
Mars sets 45 minutes after the Sun on April 1; only half an hour after later on the 30th. With a magnitude 1.4 it is not likely to be visible. Following sunset, Mars will be in a direction about half way round from west to northwest.
Jupiter will be easily visible during the earlier part of the evening but will get low by late evening early in the month and by mid evening at the end of April. By then it will set just before midnight.
During April the planet is in Cancer. It is stationary on the 9th so shows very little change in position relative to the stars all month. On the 26th the moon, just past first quarter, will be some 6° to the left of Jupiter, the moon getting slightly closer to the planet as the evening progresses.
Mutual events of jovian satellites
There are about 10 mutual events of Jupiter's Galilean satellites observable from NZ during April. Now Jupiter is visible in the evening sky, some of these take place at a more convenient time. They include:
April 2, Callisto occults Ganymede mid event ca 10.48pm NZDT (9:48 UT). The two merge ~10 minutes earlier and separate ~10 minutes later. The two moons will be well out from Jupiter with Europa between them and the planet. Io will not be visible, being in eclipse in Jupiter's shadow. April 3, Io eclipses Europa. Maximum eclipse at 11.09pm (10:09 UT) The eclipse lasts in all 5 minutes, the magnitude change is 0.7. Europa will be close to Jupiter's limb, Io a little further out. April 8, Ganymede occults Callisto, mid event 8.08 pm NZST (08:08 UT) The occultation lasts some 6.5 minutes in all. The two moons will be some distance from Jupiter with Io and Europa on the other side of the planet. April 23, Europa occults Io, mid event ~8.18 pm. The occultation lasts some 3.3 minutes in all. Io and Europa will be about 1.5 Jupiter diameters from the planet, Ganymede and Callisto will be further out on the same side of Jupiter. April 27, Ganymede occults Callisto, mid event ~10.13 pm. This is a fairly long occultation lasting some 25 minutes in all. The two moons will be several diameters from Jupiter with Io between them and the planet. Europa will be on the opposite side of Jupiter
Useful observations and timings of these events can be made by those set up for the video observation of minor planet occultations.
Users of Dave Herald's Occult program can generate their own predictions of these and other events. Hristo Pavlov's Occult Watcher programme will also list them and has diagrams showing the satellites relative to Jupiter. Details can also be found on the IMCCE web site, http://www.imcce.fr/phemu/ where predictions and requirements for observing and reporting information are available.
Saturn rises at 9.39 pm on April 1, 6.41 pm, 70 minutes after sunset, on April 30. The planet is in Scorpius moving slowly to the west. By the end of April it will be just over a degree from beta1 Scorpii (mag 2.6) and a little under 10° from Antares.
On the 8th the 86% lit moon will be less than 3° from Saturn, the two being closest about 1am on the 9th.
At present Saturn's north pole is tilted 25° towards the Earth. This brings the northern surface of the rings well into view. They should be visible in binoculars, although a small telescope is likely to give a better view.
Uranus is at conjunction with the Sun on April 7. Consequently it is close to the Sun all month and not likely to be observable. After conjunction Uranus becomes a morning object. By the end of April it will rise nearly 2 hours before the Sun.
Neptune is a morning object during April. It rises about two and three quarter hours before the Sun on the 1st and just over 5 hours earlier than the Sun on the 30th. It is in Aquarius at magnitude 7.9
During April Neptune is overtaken by the faster moving asteroid Vesta. The two are closest on the morning of April 17 when Vesta, magnitude 8.0, will be 2.6° to the upper right of Neptune.
Pluto is in Sagittarius rising near 12.30 am on the 1st and nearly 2 hours earlier on the 30th. Its magnitude is 14.4.
(1) Ceres is a morning object in Capricornus with magnitude 9.1. During the month it moves to the east across Capricornus. On the 1st it rises about 1.20 am. By the 30th it will be rising late evening just before 11 pm.
(4) Vesta is also a morning object, at 8.0 it is a magnitude brighter than Ceres. Vesta will be in Aquarius rising just after 4 am on the 1st and a little before 2.30 am on the 30th. It passes Neptune mid April.
The fololwing table lists various solar system object events during April. A list of astronomical terms used in may be found after the table.
|April 1||Moon at apogee|
|April 4||Moon full Eclipse|
|April 5||Spica 3.3 degrees south of the Moon|
|April 6||Uranus at conjunction|
|April 8||Mercury 0.5 degrees south of Uranus
Saturn 2.1 degrees south of the Moon
|April 10||Mercury superior conjunction
Moon southern most declination (-18.3 degrees)
|April 11||Pluto 3.2 degrees south of the Moon|
|April 12||Moon last quarter|
|April 15||Neptune 3.4 degrees south of the Moon|
|April 17||Moon at perigee
|April 18||Uranus 0.1 degrees north of the Moon Occn
|April 19||Mercury 3.4 degrees north of the Moon
Mars 3.0 degrees north of the Moon
|April 21||Aldebaran 0.9 degrees south of the Moon Occn|
|April 22||Mercury 1.3 degrees north of Mars
Moon northern most declination (18.3 degrees)
|April 25||Moon first quarter|
|April 26||Jupiter 5.3 degrees north of the Moon|
|April 28||Regulus 3.8 degrees north of the Moon|
|April 29||Moon at apogee|
- apogee: Furtherest point in the orbit of a body orbiting the Earth
- conjunction: Two astronomical objects are 'lined up' (have the same right ascension) when viewed from Earth. If only one object is mentioned the Sun is generally the other object.
- declination: 'Latitude' for celestial objects. The distance in degress above (north) or below (south) the celestial equator.
- perigee: Nearest point in the orbit of a body orbiting the Earth
- superior conjunction: Conjunction where the Sun is between the Earth another solar system object