Feburary Moon & Planet data for 2015


The Solar System in February 2015

All dates and times are NZDT (UT +13 hours) unless otherwise specified. Rise and set times are for Wellington. They will vary by a few minutes elsewhere in NZ.

Sunrise, Sunset and Twilight Times in February

                     February  1                      February 28       
                  morning  evening                 morning  evening     
          rise:   6.23am,  set:  8.44pm    rise:   6.57am,  set:  8.08pm
Twilights                                                               
Civil:    starts: 5.55am,  ends: 9.13pm    starts: 6.31am,  ends: 8.35pm
Nautical: starts: 5.17am,  ends: 9.51pm    starts: 5.57am,  ends: 9.09pm
Astro:    starts: 4.35am,  ends:10.32pm    starts: 5.22am,  ends: 9.44pm

February Phases of the Moon (times as shown by guide)

Full moon:     February  4 at 12.09 pm (Feb  3, 23:09 UT)
Last quarter:  February 12 at  4.50 pm (        03:50 UT)
New moon:      February 19 at 12.47 pm (Feb 18, 23:47 UT)
First quarter: February 26 at  6.14 am (Feb 25, 17:14 UT)

The Planets in February

Venus and Mars are close together and visible for a short time after sunset. Jupiter reaches opposition and is visible most of the night but Saturn is only visible in the morning sky although it rises just before midnight by the end of February. Mercury moves rapidly up into the morning sky to become easily visible an hour before sunrise in the second half of the month.

MERCURY was at inferior conjunction with the Sun on January 30 so it starts February much too close to the Sun to observe. It subsequently moves rapidly into the morning sky, rising 45 minutes before the Sun on the 6th and nearly 100 minutes earlier a week later. On the 13th at 5.40 am, an hour before sunrise, Mercury at magnitude 0.6 will be some 7° above the horizon, easily the brightest low object a little to the south of west.

From the 17th and on into early March, Mercury will rise more than 2 hours before the Sun and it will the planet will gradually brighten a little. On the 28th Mercury will be more than 12° above the horizon an hour before sunrise, making it an easy morning object with a magnitude 0.1. This will be the best morning appearance of Mercury for the year for the southern hemisphere.

VENUS and MARS become a pair of early evening planets during February. On the 1st, Venus is 9.5° left of Mars. Both planets start February in Aquarius. Both move into Pisces during the month with Venus closing in on Mars. On the 22nd, they are at their closest with Venus less than half a degree above Mars. Their brightness contrast will be extreme, Venus more than 100 times brighter than Mars.

The previous evening, when the two planets will be only slightly further apart, the moon as a fine crescent will be 4.5° to their right. By February 28 Venus will be nearly 3° ahead of Mars.

The two planets set a little over an hour after the Sun throughout February. On the 1st Mars almost 90 minutes later, Venus 68 minutes later. On the 28th Mars will set first, 63 minutes after the Sun, while Venus sets 8 minutes later (as seen from Wellington).

JUPITER is at opposition on February 7. Thus it will be visible most of the night, although low to the northeast early evening, particularly at the beginning of the month. At opposition, Jupiter will be 650 million km, 4.35 AU, from the Earth and 5.33 AU from the Sun.

The planet starts February in Leo. During February it moves to the west (that is in a retrograde sense) and into Cancer on the 4th. Early that evening the full moon will be some 4.5° to the upper right of the planet. By midnight the sky will have rotated to bring the moon almost directly above Jupiter, its distance increasing to 5°.

Mutual Events of Jovian Satellites

There are about 16 mutual events of Jupiter's Galilean satellites observable from NZ during February. The events involve either occultations or eclipses of one satellite by another. Visually, mutual occultations are the more interesting to watch as satellites can be seen to merge and separate over a period several minutes. Eclipses are normally partial events with fairly small magnitude changes of the eclipsed satellite. Consequently they are mostly difficult to detect visually. Total eclipses are rare.

Useful observations and timings of both types of event can be made by those set up for the video observation of minor planet occultations.

For more details refer to the IMCCE web site, <http://www.imcce.fr/phemu/> where predictions and requirements for observing and reporting information are available. Users of Dave Herald's Occult program can generate their own predictions.

SATURN remains a morning object throughout February. On the 1st it rises close to 1.30 am, by the end of the month a few minutes before midnight. The planet will be in Scorpius near the close double star beta Sco, magnitude 2.6. Saturn will be about 9° from Antares.

On the morning of the 13th, the moon, just past last quarter, will be 4.5° to the left of Saturn as seen in the early dawn sky.

During February Saturn's north pole is tilted almost 25° towards the Earth. This brings the northern surface of the rings well into view. They should be visible in binoculars, although a small telescope is likely to give a better view.

Outer Planets

URANUS remains in Pisces as an evening object magnitude 5.9. By the end of February it will set at 8.30pm, so less than 90 minutes after the Sun and low in the fading twilight.

NEPTUNE is within a degree of Venus on the 1st so will be low in the twilit sky. Despite being close to Venus, Neptune, magnitude 8.0, is likely to be difficult to see in binoculars due to twilight. Neptune is at conjunction with the Sun on the 26th. It will then be 4.63 billion km, almost 31 AU, from the Earth and 30 AU beyond the Sun.

PLUTO is in Sagittarius and rises more than 4 hours before the Sun by the 28th. Its magnitude is 14.4

Brighter Asteroids:

(1) Ceres is a morning object in Sagittarius with magnitude 9.2. By the end of the month it will rise over 4 hours before the Sun.

(3) Juno starts February in Hydra. It moves into Cancer on the 16th. This places it in the evening sky, although it doesn't set until several hours after midnight. Its brightness fades during the month from magnitude 8.2 to 8.9

(4) Vesta moves further into the morning sky following conjunction. It rises less than an hour before the Sun on the 1st, two hours before it on the 28th. The asteroid is in Capricornus, at magnitude 8.

(7) Iris and (8) Flora are both in Leo, but at opposite sides of the constellation, nearly 30° apart. Iris's magnitude varies from 9.5 to 9.0, Flora's at its brightest is 9.1 when at opposition on the 17th. Iris doesn't reach opposition until early March.

Brian Loader


The follwing table lists various solar system object events during February. A list of astronomical terms used in may be found after the table.

February 1 Venus 0.8 degrees south of Neptune
February 3 Moon full
February 4 Jupiter 5.0 degrees north of the Moon
February 5 Regulus 3.8 degrees north of the Moon
February 6 Moon at apogee
Jupiter at opposition
February 9 Spica 3.2 degrees south of the Moon
February 11 Mercury stationary
February 12 Moon last quarter
February 13 Saturn 2.1 degrees south of the Moon
February 14 Moon southern most declination (-18.4 degrees)
February 15 Pluto 3.0 degrees south of the Moon
February 17 Mercury 3.4 degrees south of the Moon
February 18 Moon new
February 19 Moon at perigee
Neptune 3.6 degrees south of the Moon
February 20 Venus 2.0 degrees south of the Moon
February 21 Mars 1.5 degrees south of the Moon
Uranus 0.3 degrees south of the Moon Occn
February 22 Venus 0.4 degrees south of Mars
February 24 Mercury greatest elong W(27)
February 25 Moon first quarter
Aldebaran 1.0 degrees south of the Moon Occn
February 26 Neptune at conjunction
February 27 Moon northern most declination (18.3 degrees)
  • apogee: Furtherest point in the orbit of a body orbiting the Earth
  • conjunction: Two astronomical objects are 'lined up' (have the same right ascension) when viewed from Earth. If only one object is mentioned the Sun is generally the other object.
  • declination: 'Latitude' for celestial objects. The distance in degress above (north) or below (south) the celestial equator.
  • perigee: Nearest point in the orbit of a body orbiting the Earth

The Solar System in April

NZDT ends on the morning of Sunday 5 April, clocks being set back an hour at 3am.

Dates and times are NZDT (UT +13 hours) up to April 4 and NZST (UT + 12 hours) from April 5 unless otherwise specified. Rise and set times are for Wellington. They will vary by a few minutes elsewhere in NZ.

Sunrise, sunset and twilight times in april

                     April  1  NZDT                 April 30  NZST    
                    morning  evening               morning  evening   
           rise:   7.33am,  set: 7.15pm     rise: 7.03am,  set: 5.31pm
Twilights                                                             
 Civil:    starts: 7.08am, ends: 7.41pm   starts: 6.38am, ends: 5.58pm
 Nautical: starts: 6.36am, ends: 8.13pm   starts: 6.05am, ends: 6.31pm
 Astro:    starts: 6.04am, ends: 8.45pm   starts: 5.33am, ends: 7.03pm

April PHASES OF THE MOON (times as shown by GUIDE)

  Full moon:     April  5 at  1.06 am (Apr  4, 12:06 UT)
  Last quarter:  April 12 at  3.44 pm (        03:44 UT)
  New moon:      April 19 at  6.57 am (Apr 18, 18:57 UT)
  First quarter: April 26 at 11.55 am (Apr 25, 23:55 UT)

Total eclipse of moon.

The moon will be totally eclipsed on the night of April 4 to 5. The entire event is visible from New Zealand and from eastern and central Australia. From Perth in Western Australia the moon rises about 15 minutes before the start of the initial umbral phase. The total phase of the eclipse is very short, lasting 7 minutes 21 seconds from 12:56:55 am to 1:04:16 am NZDT (11:56:55 to 12:04:16 UT). The northern limb of the moon is only just inside the umbra at totality, so is likely to remain quite brightly lit.

The moon enters the umbra at 11:15:30 pm and leaves it again at 2:46:16 NZDT. The penumbral phases, during which little change in the moon will be noticed, starts at 10:01:07 pm and ends 3:59:29 am NZDT. Note that strictly NZDT reverts to NZST at 3:00 am, before the end of the eclipse.

The planets

Mercury, Mars and Uranus are all too close to the Sun to observe. Venus gets a little higher in the evening sky, Jupiter is prominent in the first part of the evening but gets low by late evening setting just before midnight by the 30th. Saturn is best viewed late evening and through the morning before sunrise.

Mercury is at superior conjunction with the Sun on April 10 at about 3 pm. Following conjunction Mercury will become an evening object. By the end of April it will set some 45 minutes after the Sun, so is not likely to be visible.

At conjunction Mercury will be 200 million km from the Earth, 50 million km beyond the Sun. At its closest it would appear to be just over half a degrees from the southern limb of the Sun, an angle about equal to the Sun's apparent diameter.

Venus gets a little higher in the western sky following sunset during April. On the 1st it sets some 90 minutes after the Sun, increasing to just over 2 hours later on the 30th. Even so Venus will be fairly low to the northwest soon after sunset.

The planet starts the month in Aries, moving into Taurus on the 7th. On the 11th and 12th it will be about 2.5° above the Pleiades. By the end of April Venus will be 3° from the star beta Tau, magnitude 1.7

The crescent moon will be a few degrees from Venus on the evenings of the 21st and 22nd of April. The moon will be to the left of the planet on first evening and above it the following evening.

Mars sets 45 minutes after the Sun on April 1; only half an hour after later on the 30th. With a magnitude 1.4 it is not likely to be visible. Following sunset, Mars will be in a direction about half way round from west to northwest.

Jupiter will be easily visible during the earlier part of the evening but will get low by late evening early in the month and by mid evening at the end of April. By then it will set just before midnight.

During April the planet is in Cancer. It is stationary on the 9th so shows very little change in position relative to the stars all month. On the 26th the moon, just past first quarter, will be some 6° to the left of Jupiter, the moon getting slightly closer to the planet as the evening progresses.

Mutual events of jovian satellites

There are about 10 mutual events of Jupiter's Galilean satellites observable from NZ during April. Now Jupiter is visible in the evening sky, some of these take place at a more convenient time. They include:

April 2, Callisto occults Ganymede mid event ca 10.48pm NZDT (9:48 UT). The two merge ~10 minutes earlier and separate ~10 minutes later. The two moons will be well out from Jupiter with Europa between them and the planet. Io will not be visible, being in eclipse in Jupiter's shadow. April 3, Io eclipses Europa. Maximum eclipse at 11.09pm (10:09 UT) The eclipse lasts in all 5 minutes, the magnitude change is 0.7. Europa will be close to Jupiter's limb, Io a little further out. April 8, Ganymede occults Callisto, mid event 8.08 pm NZST (08:08 UT) The occultation lasts some 6.5 minutes in all. The two moons will be some distance from Jupiter with Io and Europa on the other side of the planet. April 23, Europa occults Io, mid event ~8.18 pm. The occultation lasts some 3.3 minutes in all. Io and Europa will be about 1.5 Jupiter diameters from the planet, Ganymede and Callisto will be further out on the same side of Jupiter. April 27, Ganymede occults Callisto, mid event ~10.13 pm. This is a fairly long occultation lasting some 25 minutes in all. The two moons will be several diameters from Jupiter with Io between them and the planet. Europa will be on the opposite side of Jupiter

Useful observations and timings of these events can be made by those set up for the video observation of minor planet occultations.

Users of Dave Herald's Occult program can generate their own predictions of these and other events. Hristo Pavlov's Occult Watcher programme will also list them and has diagrams showing the satellites relative to Jupiter. Details can also be found on the IMCCE web site, http://www.imcce.fr/phemu/ where predictions and requirements for observing and reporting information are available.

Saturn rises at 9.39 pm on April 1, 6.41 pm, 70 minutes after sunset, on April 30. The planet is in Scorpius moving slowly to the west. By the end of April it will be just over a degree from beta1 Scorpii (mag 2.6) and a little under 10° from Antares.

On the 8th the 86% lit moon will be less than 3° from Saturn, the two being closest about 1am on the 9th.

At present Saturn's north pole is tilted 25° towards the Earth. This brings the northern surface of the rings well into view. They should be visible in binoculars, although a small telescope is likely to give a better view.

Outer planets

Uranus is at conjunction with the Sun on April 7. Consequently it is close to the Sun all month and not likely to be observable. After conjunction Uranus becomes a morning object. By the end of April it will rise nearly 2 hours before the Sun.

Neptune is a morning object during April. It rises about two and three quarter hours before the Sun on the 1st and just over 5 hours earlier than the Sun on the 30th. It is in Aquarius at magnitude 7.9

During April Neptune is overtaken by the faster moving asteroid Vesta. The two are closest on the morning of April 17 when Vesta, magnitude 8.0, will be 2.6° to the upper right of Neptune.

Pluto is in Sagittarius rising near 12.30 am on the 1st and nearly 2 hours earlier on the 30th. Its magnitude is 14.4.

Brighter asteroids:

(1) Ceres is a morning object in Capricornus with magnitude 9.1. During the month it moves to the east across Capricornus. On the 1st it rises about 1.20 am. By the 30th it will be rising late evening just before 11 pm.

(4) Vesta is also a morning object, at 8.0 it is a magnitude brighter than Ceres. Vesta will be in Aquarius rising just after 4 am on the 1st and a little before 2.30 am on the 30th. It passes Neptune mid April.


 


The fololwing table lists various solar system object events during April. A list of astronomical terms used in may be found after the table.

April 1 Moon at apogee
April 4 Moon full Eclipse
April 5 Spica 3.3 degrees south of the Moon
April 6 Uranus at conjunction
April 8 Mercury 0.5 degrees south of Uranus
Saturn 2.1 degrees south of the Moon
Jupiter stationary
April 10 Mercury superior conjunction
Moon southern most declination (-18.3 degrees)
April 11 Pluto 3.2 degrees south of the Moon
April 12 Moon last quarter
April 15 Neptune 3.4 degrees south of the Moon
April 17 Moon at perigee
Pluto stationary
April 18 Uranus 0.1 degrees north of the Moon Occn
Moon new
April 19 Mercury 3.4 degrees north of the Moon
Mars 3.0 degrees north of the Moon
April 21 Aldebaran 0.9 degrees south of the Moon Occn
April 22 Mercury 1.3 degrees north of Mars
Moon northern most declination (18.3 degrees)
April 25 Moon first quarter
April 26 Jupiter 5.3 degrees north of the Moon
April 28 Regulus 3.8 degrees north of the Moon
April 29 Moon at apogee
  • apogee: Furtherest point in the orbit of a body orbiting the Earth
  • conjunction: Two astronomical objects are 'lined up' (have the same right ascension) when viewed from Earth. If only one object is mentioned the Sun is generally the other object.
  • declination: 'Latitude' for celestial objects. The distance in degress above (north) or below (south) the celestial equator.
  • perigee: Nearest point in the orbit of a body orbiting the Earth
  • superior conjunction: Conjunction where the Sun is between the Earth another solar system object